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Biotechnology is an area of advanced research. Benefits of biotechnology can also be seen in medical institutions. This field in biology is extensively used in pharmaceutical products and medicines, human therapy, engineering, science and technology, agriculture and many more. Gene therapy is the most successful result of biotechnology research use to cure aids and cancer. It is proven to be a great solution to mankind struggles by considering cell biology as an important research area.

Cell biology provides us an understanding of how a cell works, from bacteria to mammalian cell. Cell division is crucial in Biotechnological studies when monitoring growth of Cancer cells for therapeutic purposes. This field is becoming increasingly important in efforts to better understand complex biological behaviors.

The eukaryotic cell division is a complex phenomenon comprising of two key events, duplication of the entire genome and equal segregation of the duplicated genome into two daughter cells. These events are highly regulated so that replication occurs only once per cell cycle which is further essential so as to restore the genomic integrity of cells and prevent uncontrolled cell growth (Cancer). Deregulation of replication factors leading to loss of genomic integrity is seen in many cancers. Role of micro-RNAs in the regulation of DNA replication and cell cycle, indirectly in cancer, is being explored by various research groups worldwide.

MicroRNAs are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs with 20–25 nucleotides in length. These miRNAs are present ubiquitously in animals, plants, and viruses, suggesting that miRNAs may be of significant evolutionary importance. By down-regulating gene expression post transcriptionally, miRNAs play important roles in nearly all biological processes, such as developmental timing, cell proliferation, apoptosis, stem cell maintenance, differentiation, signal pathway, and pathogenesis including carcinogenesis.

The number of individual miRNAs expressed in different organisms is comparable to those of transcription factors or RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), and many are expressed in a tissue-specific or developmental stage-specific manner, thereby greatly contributing to cell-type-specific profiles of protein expression. The nature of miRNA interactions with their mRNA targets or say putative protein targets, which involve short sequence signatures, makes them well suited for combinatorial effects with other miRNAs or RBPs that associate with the same mRNA. With the potential to target dozens or even hundreds of different mRNAs, individual miRNAs can coordinate the over-expression of proteins in a cell hence leading to control cellular growth and giving cancer a better treatment approach.

The field of deciphering the letters of life, i.e. whole or complete genome sequencing not only paves the path for gene discovery and characterization (functional genomics) but also provides raw materials for analyzing the evolutionary history of an organism (molecular phylogeny). The genome sequence provides a bird’s eye view of the information needed for understanding the biology of organisms.  In 1974, two methods of DNA sequencing were independently developed. One team, lead by Maxam and Gilbert, used a “chemical cleavage protocol”, while the other, lead by Sanger, designed a procedure similar to the natural process of DNA replication. Even though both teams shared the 1980 Nobel Prize, Sanger’s method became the standard because of its relatively easier protocol. The first DNA sequence was obtained, of 12 base pair overhang of bacteriophage λ, using laborious methods based on 2-dimensional electrophoresis on cellulose acetate and DEAE cellulose paper. After this sequencing genomes has become easier as automated techniques have been developed from BAC shotgun sequencing to Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods and technique.

All initial plant genome projects utilized the Sanger sequencing platform of dideoxy sequencing and either large insert clones such as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that were subjected to shotgun sequencing or by direct whole genome shotgun sequencing (WGS). Since 2007, methods for sequencing plant genomes have evolved rapidly. This is due entirely to advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms in terms of throughput, quality, and read lengths. Major sequencing platform include Sanger Chain (termination/dideoxy sequencing), 454 (Pyrosequencing), Illumina (Sequencing by synthesis with reversible terminators), SOLiDTM (Sequencing by ligation in color space), Pacific Biosciences (Real-time single-molecule sequencing), Ion Torrent (pH detection),10X genomics (microfluidics-based platform for generating linked reads) and  nanopore sequencing technologies. The ability to determine the physical organization and expression patterns of genes from many plant species will allow the best leveraging of available resources through comparative genome analysis. For instance, the availability of the Arabidopsis genome sequence has greatly enhanced our knowledge of the entire complement of genes expressed by a typical flowering plant helped in map-based cloning in tomato on the basis of chromosomal synteny between the two species and facilitated functional analysis of tomato genes. Thus, translating the strings of A, G, C and T into an understanding of the various genes that make up the genome, how different genes are related, and how the various parts of the genome are coordinated. and ultimately how the genome works is still an open question and has given rise the various subfields of genomics such as transcriptomics, proteomics, functional genomics, and bioinformatics.