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Biotechnology is the branch of science that uses biochemistry, biology, and genetics principles to the development of useful products and the betterment of human health. Biotechnologists aim to use their fundamental biological knowledge of cells, proteins, and genes to develop new processes, enhance existing processes, or manufacture specific goods. They may specialise in a specific field of biotechnology, such as pharmaceutical or plant biotechnology, or operate in a variety of industries, such as food or bio waste treatment.

Biotechnology is a rapidly expanding area, and the demand for qualified biotechnology experts is likely to rise even faster in the coming decade.

Biotechnology is also extremely important in the field of education. Professorial positions in many disciplines, as well as PhD programmes with stipends. Many overseas companies seek biotechnology graduates for roles like:

  • Medical Laboratory Scientist
  • Director – Drug Manufacturing Operations
  • Cell Therapy Scientist
  • Laboratory technician Microbiology
  • Cell Culture Analyst

There are many government and private companies that recruit biotechnologists. Some Job roles in both private and government sectors are:

  • Research Interns- R&D Jobs
  • Safety Expert
  • Bioinformist
  • Clinical Research Jobs
  • Scientific Writer
  • Biotech Specialist

Salary packages in the government sector for B.Sc. biotechnology graduates

Graduates with a B.Sc. in Biotechnology will find work in the government sector.. The following are some of the most popular government job roles available to B.Sc. in Biotechnology graduates:-

JOBS                           JOB POSITION     SALARY PER ANNUM
1.

2.

3.

Epidemiologist 

Project leader

Biostatistician

  INR 6 LPA

  INR  14.1 LPA

INR 5.5 LPA

Private Jobs for B.Sc. Biotechnology Graduates

There are several fields where a B.Sc. Biotechnology graduates can work. These include hospitals, pharmaceuticals, food production firms, clinical research firms, laboratories, consultation agencies.. Following is the list of some private jobs.

JOBS         JOB POSITION SALARY PER ANNUM
      1.

       2. 

       3.

Medical coder

Research associate

Biotechnology instructor

INR 4.5 LPA

INR 3.5 LPA

INR 5.4 LPA

Top firms that recruit Biotechnologists

  • Reliance Life Sciences
  • Glaxosmithkline
  • Biocon
  • Cipla
  • Cadila Healthcare
  • Ranbaxy

Other B.Sc. Biotechnology jobs

  • All India Biotech Association- Government
  • Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology – Government
  • Biotech Consortium India Limited- Government
  • Agriculture Sector- Government
  • Research Interns- R&D Jobs- private
  • Safety Expert- private
  • Bioinformist- private
  • Clinical Research Jobs- private
  • Production Jobs in Pharma Industry- private
  • Scientific Writer- private
  • Biotech Specialist- private

 

Author 

MUSKAN JHA

BSC BIOTECHNOLOGY PART 2

Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology, Jaipur

We all become aware of various types of trends based on all elements of life as a result of our interconnected environment. Some trends are peculiar, while others are amusing, and it appears that the esoteric world of science is no exception. With the COVID-19 craze still going strong, advancements in one field of research are getting more attention than others. This domain ‘integrates natural sciences with engineering sciences in order to produce technologies and products that draw inspiration from numerous biological systems existing in our environment for the greater good.’

As you may have guessed, we’re talking about Biotechnology, which isn’t a new branch of study, but the COVID-19 epidemic has brought the importance of this somewhat obscure realm of science to our attention. To emphasize the rapid rate of progress in Biotechnology, we’ve put up a list of the hottest trends and innovations for 2022.

Before we begin, we’d like to point out that, in order to provide you with the most accurate research, all “trends” are ranked on two scales: present relevance and worldwide investment. In addition, one recent innovation in each area is shown, because what good is a trend if it doesn’t foster innovation?

1. Precision Medicines 

Precision medicines are one of the biotechnology megatrends, thanks to recently developed advanced tools like CRISPR gene editing and enhanced gene sequencing techniques. Precision medicines, as opposed to conventional medicines, allow for individualized treatment based on a person’s genetics. Furthermore, researchers can improve or generate future precision medicines by analyzing the influence of past precision medicines on highly specific gene pools, which aids in the development of newer precision medications.

In the year 2020, the pharmaceutical industry will have received a total investment of $200 billion USD for the research and development of new precision pharmaceuticals around the world.

Latest Innovation in Precision Medicine 

Researchers at companies like Moderna, BioNtech, and Pfizer are aiming to apply mRNA technology to oncology, which means that mRNA-based cancer vaccines can be used to detect and eradicate tumor cells.

These tailored cancer vaccinations are created for each patient individually. To distinguish healthy cells from ill cells, the tumor and DNA of the patient are analyzed for mutations. Researchers can develop a very precise mRNA molecule to manufacture the vaccination using AI and machine learning. Once injected into the patient, the mRNA vaccine guides the cells to produce specific proteins that train the immune system to recognise and kill malignant cells. Personalized mRNA vaccines for cancer can be developed in the same time frame as the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines.

2. Artificial Intelligence and Big Data 

Surprised!!? That is how a new subject of computer science might become a biotechnology trend.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) allows biotechnology businesses to automate a wide range of activities, allowing them to scale up their operations. For example, biopharmaceutical entrepreneurs use AI to speed up the drug discovery process, while researchers in domains like proteomics, genomics, and glycomics use AI to decipher the structures and sequencing of these varied sets of proteins.

The fact that humans alone have over 25,000 genes and 1,000,000 proteins is a prime example of Big Data’s existence in biology. Human minds will find it difficult to analyze and make good use of this unstructured data, therefore we will once again turn to AI to extract relevant combinations, models, and other information from this massive data set.

The global total corporate investment in AI reached over 68 billion dollars in 2020, and it is expected to reach 126 billion dollars by 2025.

Latest Innovation in Artificial Intelligence and Big Data 

Converting data, mostly  unstructured data into structured data is a lengthy and demanding process.  Collection of technologies known as Intelligent Process Automation (IPA) have been  developed by major tech companies to automate and immensely speed up this  process with the help of AI.

3. Biofuels

The definition of biofuel in the dictionary is “any fuel obtained from biomass, such as plant or algal material or animal waste.” The presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is increasing, which is a severe problem. In the year 2019, the level of CO2 in the atmosphere reached a new high of roughly 409 ppm (parts per million). Carbon dioxide emissions have also been steadily rising, with an annual increase of 12 billion tonnes of CO2 between 1990 and 2020. With ever-increasing energy demand and rapidly decreasing fossil fuel stocks, the development of efficient biofuels is a must.

Globally, 15.3 billion USD has been invested in research and development of better and more efficient biofuels in the previous five years (2015-2019).

Latest Innovation in Biofuels

Researchers at Columbia University, exploited a type  of bacteria called N. europaea which uses energy released from reactions between  Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide and makes liquid biofuels as byproducts inside of  uniquely called Reverse Microbial Fuel Cells (R-MFC). Similar processes have been  developed at Harvard University in which biofuels are made with the help of a  different type of bacteria called Shewanella.

4. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicines 

Tissue engineering is a relatively new and emerging branch of biotechnology. The  development of advanced techniques in bioprinting and microfluidics now allow  formation of autologous tissue grafts for various purposes such as organ  transplantation, treating burns and regenerative medicine. Furthemore, tissue  engineering provides alternatives to surgical reconstruction, transplants and other  medical devices that are used to repair damaged tissues.

Previously, tissue engineering was only limited to biomedical applications, plant  tissue cultures, but now these days some companies have also started to engineer  tissues on a small scale as an alternative to direct animal products such as  laboratory meat and laboratory leather etc. However, this area is still in development  and it needs to first reach a larger scale for products to be competitive in price with  directly obtained animal based products.

Tissue engineering can be done by four types of biomaterials namely polymers,  ceramics, metals and composites (blend of above three). The source of these  materials can either be synthetic or natural.

The fusion of cells to biomaterials is called a ‘construct’ and is the foundation of  current tissue engineering. Construct-based conventional tissue engineering  platforms are required because :- 1) Cells need a solid base to grow and proliferate.  2) Tissues need a solid scaffold to keep desired shape. 3) The rigid and porous  scaffold also serves as an inductive and instructive guide that signals for cell  differentiation, migration and orientation in a specific manner. 4) The porous  structure of a solid scaffold will allow cell seeding and vascularisation. 5) The initial  solid and porous scaffold will later get replaced by natural structures through  morphogenesis of parenchymal and stromal cells, inside and outside of the tissue  construct.

The global market size for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine was  estimated at 9.5 billion USD in 2019 alone and is expected to witness a compound  annual growth rate of 18.5% between 2020 to 2027.

Latest Innovation in Tissue Engineering

Apligraf – a bilayered skin substitute – was  the first allogeneic cell based therapy which received permission for sale as a  treatment for venous leg ulcers.

Apligraf is constructed by growing human foreskin-derived neonatal fibroblasts (a  type of stem cells) in a bovine type I collagen matrix over which human foreskin derived neonatal epidermal keratinocytes are then cultured and allowed to stratify.  Still, Apligraf does not directly restore the skin, but transiently protects and provides  injured skin with scaffold and signaling molecules (produced by the cells within the  construct) which fosters and accelerates skin regeneration.

5. Food Biotechnology and Agriculture 

Biotechnology offers a variety of options for improving food quality, such as nutritional content and shelf life, as well as raising agricultural production. These tools include genetic engineering, the use of microbes for specialized purposes, and the mass manufacture of enzymes for food manufacturing, such as catalase enzymes for mayonnaise, chymosin for cheese, and alpha amylase for baking.

The most publicized use of biotechnology in history of food biotechnology and  agriculture is the development of Bt Corn and Bt Cotton respectively which are  genetically modified species, they are exceptionally effective against certain insect  species due to their ability to express a unique bacterial protein from Bacillus  thuringiensis called as ‘Cry’, these proteins are toxic against certain pest insects but  are harmless to mammals and birds. Since then, biotechnology has continually  proven its prowess in improving food quality and agricultural yields.

Investment in Food Biotechnology raised 8.37 billion USD in 2020 alone and experts  estimate that the market will remain headstrong in this evergreen industrial sector.

Latest Innovation in Food Biotechnology and Agriculture

Harnessing the  biodegradable waste products from agriculture is always a top priority in the field of  biofuels as we discussed above. Similarly, putting food waste to good use is another  challenge. For instance, 6 to 8 million metric tons of shellfish waste is produced  every year during the making of seafood. Scientists have found a good use for this  waste by turning the chitin (a heteropolysaccharide) from shells of shellfish in  chitosan, which serves as biodegradable plastic wrap that could be used in food  packaging.

6. Honorable Mention – Biotechnology in mRNAVaccines

There are myriad types of vaccines that have been developed for various purposes  and it’s no secret that all types of vaccine development uses tools present in the  arsenal of biotechnology. Without delving deep into the application of biotechnology  in each type of vaccine, we will just focus on the most recently developed, a new  type of vaccine called ‘mRNA vaccine’.

mRNA vaccines consist of mRNA (messenger RNA), which is encoded by antigen  genes of an infectious agent. When the mRNA from mRNA vaccine is administered  into host cells, it will translate into protein antigens that will invoke protective  immunity against the infectious agent. Vaccines based on mRNA allow quick  responses against pandemic microbe strains as they are easy to mass produce.

One unique feature of mRNA vaccines is that they are able to induce cellular and  humoral immunity equally. Also in comparison to DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines  offer stronger safety advantages because mRNA vaccines carry only the elements  that are directly required for expression of the encoded proteins and rarely interact  with the genome. Because any protein can be encoded and expressed by mRNA,  mRNA vaccines offer maximum flexibility with respect to vaccine production, and  principally enable the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines fighting  against infections and cancers.

Latest Innovation in mRNA Vaccines 

mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, a precision  medicine, is evidently also an latest example of mRNA vaccines.

Conclusion

Finally, the number of biotechnology applications is vast and inexhaustible. Biotechnology’s varied contributions appear to have an impact on and enhance every element of life. With these trends accelerating in the field of biotechnology, I hope I’ve persuaded you why biotechnology occupies the highest echelon in the auditorium of applied sciences, and how biotechnology sharpens and exploits every biological system on the planet, from bacteria to higher echelons of eukaryotes, to provide an endless stream of innovations that make life a little easier step by step.

 

Author: Priyesh Avasthi

College: Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Course: M.Sc. Microbiology, Semester – 1

Biotechnology is now becoming one of the best assets to this ever-changing human world. Biotechnology is one of the most reliable answers to the dangerous question of climate change. Using energy efficient farming, carbon sequestration, and reducing synthetic fertilizer use. Planting genetically modified crops are better than regular crops as they have shown reduction in green house gases emitted.

This reduction isn’t a negligible reduction. In 2012, greenhouse gas emissions were reduced to the equivalent of removing 27 billion kg of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which is equivalent to removing 11.9 million cars from the road.  Green biotechnology is in use extensively these days as they allow production of more fertile and more resistant plant and with the help of efficient farming production of biofuel from traditional crops has help to reduce the adverse effects of transport sector.  Hence, reducing the total carbon emission from atmosphere and helping planet to cool down.

Also Read: Global Warming’s Impact on Infectious Diseases

As we all know that fossil fuel which we use so extensively are also playing a huge hand in increasing air pollution and according to a report is estimated to kill millions of people each year, but thanks to the modern achievements made by biotechnology we are now shifting to “Biofuels”. Utilizing the natural breaking down abilities of microorganisms can generate biofuels from agricultural and forestry wastes. The use of Biofuels should be encouraged so that :

  • The carbon emission will reduce.
  • To prevent the depletion of fossil fuels.

In comparison with diesel, biodiesel provides 93% more usable energy, reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 41%, reduces several major air pollutants, and has very little impact on human and environmental health, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide relief.

With the rise of industrial growth the creation of new materials was needed because of the scarcity of natural resources that’s when plastic came. One of the main reasons why plastic became so famous is due to the fact that it was easy to manufacture, it was cheap, and it was easy to avail but due to the growth of plastic, plastic pollution was inevitable, and thus the world witnessed a huge rise in plastic pollution. The waste from petrochemical plastic production plants as well as the tones of non-biodegradable plastic thrown away daily is huge problem for the environment. The solution to this is “Bioplastics”.

Bioplastics are plastics made from renewable biomass sources such as vegetable fats and oils, starch, and recycled food waste. These bioplastics are compostable plastic which will break down in compost pile leaving no toxic residue behind.

Why bioplastic over plastic?

Plastics take approximately 20 to 500 years to decompose depending on their structure and materials. While in comparison bioplastic only take 3-6 months to decompose.

Biotechnology involves applying life sciences to traditional manufacturing and chemical synthesis. The industrial biotechnology industry plays a crucial role in addressing climate change and empowering economic development. It is the key to producing clean, renewable alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and other products, and can greatly reduce the energy consumption and GHG emissions from a wide range of industrial processes by enhancing efficiency, reducing waste and capturing and capturing and converting carbon dioxide.

It follows that “biotechnology can significantly contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation”. Yet biotechnology is hardly ever referred as a ‘clear technology’.

Author: Divyam Dave

College: Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Course: B.Sc Biotechnology Part-III

Biotechnology – A new era is beginning. In the 21st century, one of the greatest challenges is feeding the world. Without biotechnology and the use of scientific advancements, it will not be possible to overcome this challenge. Biotechnology influences the healthcare industry in different ways. Trends in biotechnology change the features of the medical field.

Be it the production of genetically improved treatment for diseases, enhancement of immunity against diseases, biotechnology has become a significant part of the medical world and has proved to be a boon for the medical science in numerous ways. The helpfulness of microorganisms has proved to be a boon in the agricultural, pharmaceutical and food processing industries.

With time, the requirement of highly qualified and significantly skilled biotechnology researchers has increased as the global economy is reaching new heights. It has not only helped to modify the agricultural crops for increasing their nutritional aspects but has also increased their yields. So even for the farmers the field of biotechnology has proved to be a boon. In order to decrease the utilization of insecticides, the use of genetically modified insecticidal plants has shown significant beneficial effects. With the decrease in the use of insecticides, their harmful effects on the crops will also decrease.

Biotechnology holds a significant value in the treatment of numerous diseases. The techniques of biotechnology are involved from growing the antibiotic producing microbes in fermentation broth to finally obtaining a pure antibiotic product in pharmaceutical industries. Furthermore, with the use of modern biotechnology, there can be an enhancement in the advanced treatment methods for numerous diseases. Biotechnology plays an important role in the healthcare system. Biotechnology is used significantly in the production of various medicines and vaccines for the treatment of different diseases. This field is also involved in various other medical processes which have significant roles in the healthcare system. Some of the most important sectors of biotechnology in the field of healthcare are described below:

Biopharmaceutical

 A field in which biotechnology is used for the making of drugs for medical purposes. The formulation and composition of these drugs is usually done with the life forms that are taken from the different microorganisms. Since the efficiency and usefulness of these drugs is much more as compared to the existing ones, thereby these drugs have replaced the existing drugs. Also, in bio-pharmaceutical drugs no synthetic products or chemicals are used. Only microorganisms are used for making these drugs. They work in such a way that they specifically target the hidden mechanism of a disease and enhance the immune system of the body with no side effects. Now, scientists are workings on the cure for cancer, hepatitis and other diseases like heart- related problems with the help of biopharmaceutical products.

Pharmaco-Genomics

A field that is the combination of two different fields, i.e., genomics and pharmaceuticals. This field helps in studying the genetic information of an individual which further helps in understanding the response of the body to the given drugs. The main aim of this field is the generation of such drugs which are specific for an individual in accordance to his/her genetic make-up. With this process, the chances of curing any disease increases thereby decrease the processing time of the drugs which is of significant help for humans.

Gene Therapy 

A technique of biotechnology that is utilized for the diagnosis of diseases such as Parkinson’s, Cancer, etc. The instrument utilized in this field helps in replacing or curing the infected of unhealthy genes of the individuals.

Genetic Testing/Screening

A process of biotechnology which is utilized for finding out the hereditary diseases of an individual, i.e., a disease which an individual acquires from the genes of their ancestors or parents. In addition, this process is also used significantly in the legal proceedings such as finding out the parents of an individual or testifying a criminal, etc.

With all the above points, one can definitely say that Biotechnology has a bright future and with this highly qualified medical biotechnologists will be needed to secure the healthy future of mankind as well as nature.

Author: Suhela Agarwal

College: Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Course: M.Sc. Biotechnology Semester IV

Sustainable improvement is a assignment all of us should take. Environmental sustainability is one of the giant problems confronted by the humanity. Expeditious industrialization has placed a constraint on the resources. Establishing a conservationist surroundings is indispensable. For twenty first century the heroes may be who introduce extra sustainability. It is the obligation of each man or woman and must be a manner of life. It is not always an easily described concept, neither is there any predefined manner of reaching it. The only technique of maintaining the surroundings is such that returns all the additives in a recyclable manner to preserve the equilibrium.

Ground-breaking biotechnology research is providing construction blocks to offer answer for resurrecting the ecosystem. Biotechnology industry is running on renovating contemporary substances and techniques with extra sustainable and biological alternatives. There is a plethora of places where biotechnology could make a great difference. Biotechnology has uniquely placed itself over the pinnacle of complex region to make an impact. The most important motto of sustainability is people, planet and profit and biotechnology is successfully running on this integration to make changes.

The grasp plan is to locating techniques that use recyclable compounds and substances that can successfully lessen waste accumulation and as we all of us are properly privy about the plastic pollution, new technologies have been working to produce 100% recyclable plastic from agricultural and forest waste and in turn killing two birds with a single stone i.e. solving the problem of sustainability and well as waste. Biotech is supplying modern answers to produce fuel from sources like sawdust, rice hulls, almond hulls, and municipal waste to play a small role in our low carbon future. Some companies are exploiting the natural ability of microorganisms to break waste and produce fuel. 

In many cases these microorganisms or their products are integrated into the substrates which give us the products, desired within the industries, samples of these are bioleaching (biomining), bio detergent, biotreatment of pulp, bio treatment of wastes (bioremediation), bio filtration, aquaculture treatments, biotreatment of textiles, biocatalysts, biomass fuel production, bio monitoring, and so forth. In an environmental context, biotechnology has its greatest contribution to form in agriculture — especially by improving crop-yields. 

It offers opportunities to style crops for specific environments and to form crops more efficient producers of food-energy than otherwise. Not only this biotechnology is also revolutionising the construction industry, the production of many construction materials requires toxic chemicals, energy and water and emits large amount of carbon but now companies are focusing on using biodegradable materials such as cocoa husks, dried orange peels, and ground blue pea flowers to create sustainable construction materials. In London, a start-up called Biohm is looking into using mushrooms to produce construction materials from organic waste. In the Netherlands, the corporate Green Basilisk seeks to extend the lifespan of concrete by embedding it with bacteria that repair the fabric when it suffers damage. US-based Biomason uses similar microbes to make cement tiles with a low-carbon footprint.

Along with this the biotechnology industries are transforming manufacturing processes to provide green technology tools for sustainable development to safeguard our natural resources. These are tools (biotechnological tools), which could solve the matter of pollution and help sustain the environment.

Author: Akshita Sharma

College: Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Course: M.Sc Biotechnology sem 4

Building a self-reliant India is an imperative step towards building a robust economy, resilient infrastructure and a bright future where we are always ready to face any challenges as a society & a nation. One of the important aspects of becoming Self – reliant is developing a strong public healthcare care system with ample resources for diagnosing, containing and treating diseases and keeping the large population healthy and disease – free. This has become particularly evident in the present-day scenario of the Covid -19 pandemic

Biotechnology as a field of science plays an important role in providing tools to the nation for dealing with and defeating this pandemic. Be it indigenous vaccines, PPE kits, disease diagnosis, drug development, masks, ventilators, thermal scanners etc. India showcased it’s capability in the development of the covid vaccine for itself and the world. This was a 62 Billion $ sector in 2012 and is expected to grow up to a 150 Billion $ by 2025. Thus, Atmanirbhar Bharat or Self – reliant India is a guideline for India to become self – sufficient and hold an important place in the world’s economy.

5 pillars of Self – Reliance Vision and the contribution of Biotechnology in each of these areas:

  1. ECONOMY
  2. INFRASTRUCTURE
  3. TECHNOLOGY-DRIVEN SYSTEM
  4. DEMOGRAPHY
  5. DEMAND

ECONOMY 

The first pillar of a self- sufficiency in India is the ECONOMY. The quantum change brought about by innovation and research in the field of Biotechnology contributes towards improving lives of people by creating products and solutions which directly or indirectly contribute to economic growth. During the pandemic situation such innovations helped in designing diagnostic tools, making vaccines and testing existing and new drugs for the treatment of masses. The in – house capabilities worked as a confidence booster for the economy and general public.

INFRASTRUCTURE

The infrastructure of our nation is the identity of modern India. May it be agriculture, pharmaceuticals, food processing, herbal products or any other industry, biotechnology is playing an important role in making it possible to build an improved infrastructure.

TECHNOLOGY-DRIVEN SYSTEM

We all should build a system which fulfils the dream of our citizens in this 21st century. The biotechnologist makes the system technology based and the innovations done by us are already fulfilling the needs of the population. We should create a kind of system which fulfils the needs of each and every person.

DEMOGRAPHY

On the path of self-reliant India, our strength is our vibrant demography. To support our citizens the biotechnology field is serving as a hope to life, to achieve the goal of healthy and wealthy life.

DEMAND

There should be ample supply and resources to fulfil the demand arising from requirements of the economy and market forces. Large production capabilities and a quick and efficient distribution system keeps the economy functioning well.  The biotechnology sector is working hard to scale – up its operations to provide ample support to the country and its economy.

Another motto included in the vision of Self – reliance was “IPPP” which stands for –

I – INNOVATION

P – PATENTED

P – PRODUCE

P – PROSPER

This is a message for biotechnologists and the scientific community to inspire them to work towards ‘innovation’ and ‘patent’ this knowledge so that we can ‘produce’ unique goods and services to cater to the needs of our countrymen and economy and lead the path towards prosperity.

BIOTECHNOLOGY – A DRIVER OF INNOVATION

In the field of agriculture, biotechnology helps increase crop production and develops better varieties of plants which not only fulfil the demand for food but also helps farmers recover losses. Biotechnology tools can help farmers by producing food grains with better nutrition, texture and flavour. The genetically modified crops are less prone to infections.

Medical biotechnology helps in production of desirable drugs to cure diseases. It also helps in correct diagnosis of ailments. One of the most useful products created in this field was the Recombinant Insulin. In the current pandemic situation, the biotechnologists are working tirelessly to produce vaccines, PPE kits, PCR based diagnostics tools, sanitization related products and machinery and so on.

To sum up, biotechnology is at the fore –front in the war against the Covid – 19 pandemic and is continuously providing tools for a self – reliant and self –sufficient India. Never before has there been a better time for the youth of the country to take up an exceptional career in this vast and fast –growing field and make meaningful contributions to their nation and humanity.

Submitted by                                                                                                      Co – Author

Name: Rishita Parihar                                                                                      Name:  Shubhra Mehrish 

Course: M.Sc. Biotechnology Semester One                                              Course: B.Sc. Biotechnology Part 2 

College: Dr. B. Lal institute of Biotechnology                                           College  Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Beginning from December’19, the world has heard enough about Coronavirus and suffered  its manifestations one after the other and the havoc does not seem to stop even now. Ever  since the rise of COVID-19 cases all over the world, the healthcare sector has been striving  very hard to stop the spread of virus along with devising new tools and techniques to  counteract the grave consequences. Major agendas have been shifted completely giving all  the attention to this deadly virus. Lead by healthcare workers, task forces, government  workers and social workers are putting their efforts day and night to conquer this situation.  

In the initial phase of this pandemic, when people started to develop certain symptoms and  those symptoms were becoming severe over the course of time, it was contemplated that  this new disease is caused by a microorganism, is contagious and spreads at a very fast  pace. Given the advanced level of medical diagnostics which has been possible because of all  the research and development in the field of biotechnology, scientists very quickly  concluded the structure and physiology of this virus. This uncovering of facts and figures  helped in diagnosis of virus, opened possibilities for treatment and prevention of spread. 

Starting with the majorly reliable diagnostic tool; RT-PCR, to all the advanced medical  equipment, medicines, life-saving drugs and obviously the most talked about vaccines, all  rely on the basics of biotechnology. Biotechnology has enabled us to look into deep causes of  problems at a microscopic level and solve them accordingly. The small a sound procedures  and techniques have helped us to understand functioning of cells, organs and human body  as a whole to an extent that we now have access to literally even the smallest corners of  cells and we can modify their functioning even at genetic level. This level of understanding  of organisms is not only helpful but also enables us to literally change the way they function. 

Because of the understanding of anatomy and physiology along with the recombinant  biotechnology, scientists all over the world are able to produce organisms as per their  choice of characters and functions. Highly reliable and accurate biotechnological tools are  now being used to deduce the structure and function of organisms at a very fast speed and  the advancements are being continuously made to further increase the efficacy. So, it won’t  be wrong to enunciate that biotechnology is the solution to new-age problems in the healthcare  sector and continues to lead the world to a medically-efficient and safe future. 

Apart from the treatment aspect which obviously articulates a lot about the role of  biotechnology in this pandemic, this fascinating and promising branch of biology has  definitely aided in the prevention of viruses to a great extent. India is a densely populated country,  which makes the management at the time of crisis; a herculean task. The immense crowd,  poor hygiene practices, lack of awareness, illiteracy etc. make it fiendish to implement  general protocols that are vital to prevention. Biotechnology through its very basic  principles and methodologies have enabled everyone to have access to basic necessities during this pandemic. 

Sanitization being necessary, was procured by use of chemicals and  medicinal extracts, keeping in mind the cost and sustainability. Various biotechnologists, in  spite of being at moderate level were able to innovate affordable medical commodities for  example: PPE kits, ventilators, masks and shields which undeniably have helped in coping  with the atrocious problem of contagious spread of virus among communities. Biotechnology  continues to lead in this grave situation with numerous innovations that are made with each  passing day and are enabling people to have more chances of survival. 

It is speculated that Coronavirus can dwell around us for a longer period of time and will  keep affecting the lives of people but biotechnology with its promising and sustainable  solutions is here to stay and fight this pandemic efficiently. Every little effort made by  common people combined with efforts of biotechnologists all over the world is proving to  help and let the world flourish even during these baffling times. Biotechnology at its root  aims to provide affordable and sustainable solutions pertaining to the medical and healthcare  sector and discoveries and innovations will definitely lead the world out of this pandemic  and allow everyone to breathe in a COVID free environment.

Author: Vaishali

College: Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Course: M.Sc. Biotechnology Semester-III

As we all know that Biotechnology is a technology that always brings new solutions, techniques, and useful products by using living organisms and biological systems, in our lives to make it easy going. Modern civilization is hard to imagine without Biotechnology. We have been using biotechnology in everyday life since the ancient period:-in making food, such as bread and cheese, preserving dairy products, and for fermenting beer. Biotechnology is an essential part of our everyday life even though we don’t realise it. There are many ways in which biotechnology can improve our everyday life.

Biotechnology could help to address many problems such as climate change, infectious diseases, food security, energy shortage, to name a few. Day by day where the population is increasing and natural resources are decreasing, biotechnologists developed solutions by increasing agriculture productivity [Genetically modified crops] and alternative sources.

Biotechnology has been providing services in health care & medicines since 1960. Worldwide millions of people are taking advantage of drugs and vaccines produced by biotechnology. Biotechnology is responsible for hundreds of medical diagnosis tests. If we look into today’s situation of COVID-19 where the whole world is suffering from this pandemic, biotechnology is playing a key role by the RT-PCR test, & by working on viral mechanisms biotechnologists got success in the vaccine production. COVID vaccines are also a precious gift to humankind & without biotechnology, it wasn’t possible.

There must be someone around you who is suffering from diabetes. Before 1972 [first recombinant insulin was discovered], insulin used to be produced from the pancreas of the pig that was allergic to some insulin dependent diabetics. Now genetically engineered bacteria produce insulin without animals and that is saving millions of people’s lives today. Industrial biotechnology uses enzymes & microorganisms to make bio-based products in the sectors such as chemicals, food technology, detergents, paper, textiles, and biofuels. Cosmetics have become an important part of our life. Biotechnology is used to produce, discover, and develop components by cosmetic companies.

Food is one of the basic living needs and biotechnology plays a huge role in the food industry including agriculture, fermentation & preservation. Biotechnology has brought remarkable changes in the field of food development by better crops. But what is meant by “better”? Through the selection of traits like drought resistance, pest resistance, herbicide resistance, longer storage life & nutrient value, biotechnology is developing better crops. Transgenic crops are herbicide-tolerant e.g. soybean, corn, and cotton & BT crops are insect resistant e.g. cotton and corn. Have you heard about “Golden Rice”? It is also a biotechnology product that is rich in vitamin A. It is beneficial for the millions of people in countries that are suffering from vitamin A deficiency disease.

Do you know about fermented foods? Fermentation is one of the ancient techniques of biotechnology. Fermentation is an anaerobic process in which microorganisms like yeast and bacteria participate in the breakdown of the food components like glucose into organic acids, gases, or alcohol. Fermented foods have unique & desirable teste, texture quality, fragrance, and appearance. 

It increases the quality & nutritional value of that particular food. There are so many examples of  fermented foods like yogurt, cheese, bread dough, sour cream, Kimchi [fermented cabbage recipe], Pickle, beverages like wine, beer, cider, etc that we use in our everyday life. There are various products we obtained due to the process of  biotechnology which we utilize in our everyday life. Biotechnology has the biggest impact on our life. Have a look around you, you will realise that you are surrounded by many products that are gifts for us by biotechnology. We should say thanks and appreciate biotechnology for making our life easy.

Author – Nainakshi Singoria

College: Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Course: M.Sc. Microbiology Semester I

India is among the top 12 destinations for biotechnology worldwide. At the moment India biotechnology industry makes up just 3% of the overall global biotech market ($11.1 billion/81,680 crore) but this number is expected to go up to 19% by 2025 ($100 billion/₹7.5lakh crore) that’s almost one-fifth of the world’s biotech sector. The biotechnology industry in India comprises >2700 biotech startups and is estimated to reach 10,000 by 2024 which aims to provide high quality drugs, better diagnosis & MedTec products available at reasonable price.

Let’s take a look at India’s top 10 biotechnology startups that are making India & the world a healthier place.

XCode Life Sciences

Founded by Mohammed Saleem, Abdur Rab Abdur Rahman & Ramabadran narayanan in 2010. It focuses on preventive healthcare by enabling individuals to understand their genetic makeup and helping them to improve their lives by creating personalized health, nutrition and fitness plan based on their genetic markers and disease risk. A couple of years back XCode also launched the world’s first ever South Asian ancestry genetic test which enables south Asian people to trace their ancestry. So far XCode life science has raised $170 million (1.25 crore) from round glass partners and shade holdings.

MapMyGenome

Founded by Anu Acharya in 2013. It is a personal genomics startup that offers their customers DNA-based immunity report which offer insights about your risk towards certain immune system diseases as well as life style diseases they might be susceptible to. These reports also tell which drugs will be most effective for them based on their DNA. Make My Genome has raised $1 million (7 crore) from investors Singapore angel network & sequoia capitals MD Rajan Anandan.

Oncostem Diagnostics

Founded by Manjiri Bakre in 2011. Oncostem is a cancer treatment startup that offers innovative prognostic & preventive solutions. Its flagship product CanAssist Breast is a prognostic test for early stage breast cancer patients which provide vital insights about breast tumors as well as benefits & risks of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. It is working on developing tests for other type of cancer like oral & ovarian cancer. Oncostem diagnostic has raised $7 million (₹51.5 crore) from Artiman Ventures.

Sea6 Energy

The company was founded by 4 IIT Madras students Sailaja Nori, Nelson Vadasseri, Sayash Kumar, Sowmya Balendiran and their professor Shrikumar Suryanarayan in 2010. Sea6 Energy calls itself an ocean operating system because it has managed to harness the seaweed grown in oceans in a sustainable way to create a range of bioproducts that can boost agriculture, enhance animal & plant immunity and provide an alternative source of energy. It has raised $8.9 million (₹65.5 crore) from investors like Tata Capital & Biocon’s founder and CEO Kiran Mazumdar Shaw.

Pandorum Technologies

Founded by Arun Chandru and Dr. Tuhin Bhowmick in 2011, Pandorum Technologies is a biotech company that focuses on tissue engineering & regenerative medicine. It is the 1st Indian company to design & 3D print human liver tissue for medical research. Till date, the startup has raised $9.2 million (67.75 crore) from investors like 500 startups, 021 Capital, Indian Angel Network and Binny Bansal.

Bugworks Research

Founded by Anand Anandkumar in 2014, Bugworks Research is a drug discovery startup that is designing antibiotics that can fight the superbugs which are immune to our traditional drugs. To date, this biopharma startup has raised $16.5 million (121.5 crore) from University of Tokyo Edge Capital, Global Brain Corporation and Aquipharma Holdings.

Zumutor Biologics

Founded by Kavitha Iyer Rodrigues in 2013, Zumutor Biologics is one of the leading immune-oncology startups that help in treating cancer by targeting the body’s immune system. To date, it has raised $41.6 million (306.4 crore) from Accel, Chiratae Ventures & Bharat Innovation Fund.

Vyome Therapeutics

Founded by Shiladitya Sengupta & Venkateswarlu Nelabhotla in 2010, Vyome Therapeutics is focused on treating inflammatory diseases like acne using its innovative next-generation therapeutic solutions. It has raised $48.3 million (355.7 crore) from Iron Pillar, Sabre Partners and Aarin Capital.

Farcast Biosciences

Founded by Pradip K. Majumder & Mallikarjun Sundaram in 2010, Farcast Biosciences was formely known as Mitra Biotech. The startup has developed its flagship platform called CANScript which helps oncologists to identify which drug will be most effective for their patients. They have raised $76 million (₹560 crore) from Northpond Ventures, Tata Capital & Accel.

MedGenome

Founded by Sam Santhosh in 2013 , MedGenome is a biotech startup that offers genome–based diagnostics and research solutions. It uses DNA sequencing to help pharmaceutical companies develop personalised medicines for diseases like Cancer, Diabetes and other rare diseases. To date, MedGenome has raised $119 million (₹876.4 crore) from investors like LeapFrog Investments, Sequoia Capital and Zodius Capital.

These biotechnology startups are working at a speed of light to reach the sky heights by expanding their network. The advent of digitization & artificial intelligence has advanced the way science can deal with health issues. Let’s hope that in future more innovation, discoveries and development will be carried out in the biotech industry in order to advance the healthcare system worldwide.

Submitted By: Somya Mathur
Class: B.Sc. Biotechnology Part-2
College: Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

 

Biotechnology

Albert Einstein said “Imagination is more important than knowledge” but the fact is what common people can only imagine, biotechnologist with their productive knowledge can make it into reality, be it vaccine development for dreadful virus-like COVID-19 or interacting with life-controlling molecules like DNA, RNA, and proteins.

There is a dominant ideology that pursuing biotech can only open the door for the R&D sector. The truth is careers in biotech ranges from Drug development, biochemist, biophysicist, Medical Scientist, Food processing, biomanufacturing specialists, Environment control, Waste management, Toxicologist and even in beauty care products manufacturing and scientific writing too.

Biotechnology is absolutely linked with health, agricultural sectors, and many more. 

If a person is a Graduate in biotech then he/she can be employed as Biochemist, Biophysicist with minimum wage. Post Graduation opens up many job options like QA, QC, etc in the private sector. Below, explore average annual wages and job opportunities for many of today’s leading biotechnology careers.

1. Biomedical Engineer: $91,410 

2. Biochemist and Biophysicists: $94,490 

3. Biotechnology Research Scientist: $87,418 

4. Biomanufacturing Specialists: $83,017 

5. Medical Scientist: $88,790 

6. Microbiologist: $75,650 

7. Process Development Scientists: $94,739 

8. Product Management Director: $143,402 

  • Any student with a proper fellowship like CSIR/UGC NET, DBT, INSPIRE, etc can also get desirable jobs and salaries within a good private as well as government institute.
  • Besides teaching there is broad scope in R&D sector with a good salary package and an experience too.
  • A doctorate degree i.e. PhD adds further options along with well payment and also a post of Research Associate (RA)

Recently, during the pandemic companies like Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Astra Zeneca, etc are hiring knowledgeable freshers as well as professionals so as to be prepared for any upcoming pandemic with a good wage.