In terms of World statistics of hunger, food security is one of the biggest problems. The threat of regeneration of availability of food is now increasing day by day. And this is happening not only with small nations but also with developing nations like India.
The persistence of food insecurity and malnutrition is an on-going issue affecting millions of lives. Even with the success of the green revolution, the world zero hunger motive is not fulfilled. Global hunger, a mortifying crisis is a condition in which people do not get sufficient food to eat.
They are far away from winning the battle of food security for hundreds to millions of poor people. To combat this problem, Biotechnology provides a tool that enables farmers to grow high yielding crops that even have higher nutritional content, and which can hold out against biological and physical stresses. Biotechnology put forward new solutions to control and overcome these challenges.
Developments in various branches of biotechnology also play an important role in substantially increasing its efforts to find an alternative to synthetic feeding and new innovations in conventional plant breeding technologies.
Moreover, state-of-the-art biotechnology offers an exciting new, and environmentally friendly way to meet customer demand for sustainable agricultural growth. These sectors of biotechnology play an important role in the fight against hunger in the world:-
Traditional plant breeding approaches have certain limitations. Since micronutrient malnutrition leads to serious health problems, one intervention is to produce basic food crops for higher levels of micronutrients, also called bio-fortification’.
These biofortified cultures have been successfully disseminated in a variety of developing countries with proven nutritional and health benefits. In addition, transgenic approaches allow us to reach much higher micronutrient levels in crops than conventional methods alone, thereby increasing nutritional efficiency.
Genetic engineering can also assist in combining micronutrient traits with agronomic traits that enhance productivity, such as drought tolerance and pest resistance, which are becoming increasingly relevant to climate change.
Nanotechnology impacts many aspects of food science, from the way food, is grown to how it is packaged. Companies are developing nano-material that will make a difference not only in the taste of food but also in food security and the health benefits that food brings.
The three most promising developments that deploy nanoparticles that enhance the potential of plants to absorb nutrients from the soil are 1.
- Nanocapsules that release a regular supply of pesticides,
- Nano-sensors which measure and adjust soil humidity levels.
- Nanofertilizer which boosts crops with nutrients.
In a survey earlier this year, they found that zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles increased the levels of antioxidant lycopene in tomatoes to 113 percent. Other researchers explore nanoparticles that protect plants from insects, fungi, and weeds.
Plants are genetically engineered to modify their DNA sequences to generate certain beneficial traits. Genetic engineering can enhance crop performance and increase the production of the target crop. Crops can even be designed to be more nutritious, providing essential vitamins to people who are struggling to obtain the specific nutrients needed for healthy living.
GM crops like golden rice, pomato, corn, alfalfa, etc. are some examples of genetically modified crops with high nutritional value.
The way to eradicate hunger in the world is more complex than any solution and is in fact much more complex than to tackle only the quantity or quality of food. The United Nations Global Sustainable Development Goals address hunger worldwide under Goal 2: Zero Hunger. Their aim is to eradicate hunger, secure food, improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. This objective lays the foundation for the fight against global hunger through a multi-pronged approach.