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Beginning from December’19, the world has heard enough about Coronavirus and suffered  its manifestations one after the other and the havoc does not seem to stop even now. Ever  since the rise of COVID-19 cases all over the world, the healthcare sector has been striving  very hard to stop the spread of virus along with devising new tools and techniques to  counteract the grave consequences. Major agendas have been shifted completely giving all  the attention to this deadly virus. Lead by healthcare workers, task forces, government  workers and social workers are putting their efforts day and night to conquer this situation.  

In the initial phase of this pandemic, when people started to develop certain symptoms and  those symptoms were becoming severe over the course of time, it was contemplated that  this new disease is caused by a microorganism, is contagious and spreads at a very fast  pace. Given the advanced level of medical diagnostics which has been possible because of all  the research and development in the field of biotechnology, scientists very quickly  concluded the structure and physiology of this virus. This uncovering of facts and figures  helped in diagnosis of virus, opened possibilities for treatment and prevention of spread. 

Starting with the majorly reliable diagnostic tool; RT-PCR, to all the advanced medical  equipment, medicines, life-saving drugs and obviously the most talked about vaccines, all  rely on the basics of biotechnology. Biotechnology has enabled us to look into deep causes of  problems at a microscopic level and solve them accordingly. The small a sound procedures  and techniques have helped us to understand functioning of cells, organs and human body  as a whole to an extent that we now have access to literally even the smallest corners of  cells and we can modify their functioning even at genetic level. This level of understanding  of organisms is not only helpful but also enables us to literally change the way they function. 

Because of the understanding of anatomy and physiology along with the recombinant  biotechnology, scientists all over the world are able to produce organisms as per their  choice of characters and functions. Highly reliable and accurate biotechnological tools are  now being used to deduce the structure and function of organisms at a very fast speed and  the advancements are being continuously made to further increase the efficacy. So, it won’t  be wrong to enunciate that biotechnology is the solution to new-age problems in the healthcare  sector and continues to lead the world to a medically-efficient and safe future. 

Apart from the treatment aspect which obviously articulates a lot about the role of  biotechnology in this pandemic, this fascinating and promising branch of biology has  definitely aided in the prevention of viruses to a great extent. India is a densely populated country,  which makes the management at the time of crisis; a herculean task. The immense crowd,  poor hygiene practices, lack of awareness, illiteracy etc. make it fiendish to implement  general protocols that are vital to prevention. Biotechnology through its very basic  principles and methodologies have enabled everyone to have access to basic necessities during this pandemic. 

Sanitization being necessary, was procured by use of chemicals and  medicinal extracts, keeping in mind the cost and sustainability. Various biotechnologists, in  spite of being at moderate level were able to innovate affordable medical commodities for  example: PPE kits, ventilators, masks and shields which undeniably have helped in coping  with the atrocious problem of contagious spread of virus among communities. Biotechnology  continues to lead in this grave situation with numerous innovations that are made with each  passing day and are enabling people to have more chances of survival. 

It is speculated that Coronavirus can dwell around us for a longer period of time and will  keep affecting the lives of people but biotechnology with its promising and sustainable  solutions is here to stay and fight this pandemic efficiently. Every little effort made by  common people combined with efforts of biotechnologists all over the world is proving to  help and let the world flourish even during these baffling times. Biotechnology at its root  aims to provide affordable and sustainable solutions pertaining to the medical and healthcare  sector and discoveries and innovations will definitely lead the world out of this pandemic  and allow everyone to breathe in a COVID free environment.

Author: Vaishali

College: Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Course: M.Sc. Biotechnology Semester-III

As we all know that Biotechnology is a technology that always brings new solutions, techniques, and useful products by using living organisms and biological systems, in our lives to make it easy going. Modern civilization is hard to imagine without Biotechnology. We have been using biotechnology in everyday life since the ancient period:-in making food, such as bread and cheese, preserving dairy products, and for fermenting beer. Biotechnology is an essential part of our everyday life even though we don’t realise it. There are many ways in which biotechnology can improve our everyday life.

Biotechnology could help to address many problems such as climate change, infectious diseases, food security, energy shortage, to name a few. Day by day where the population is increasing and natural resources are decreasing, biotechnologists developed solutions by increasing agriculture productivity [Genetically modified crops] and alternative sources.

Biotechnology has been providing services in health care & medicines since 1960. Worldwide millions of people are taking advantage of drugs and vaccines produced by biotechnology. Biotechnology is responsible for hundreds of medical diagnosis tests. If we look into today’s situation of COVID-19 where the whole world is suffering from this pandemic, biotechnology is playing a key role by the RT-PCR test, & by working on viral mechanisms biotechnologists got success in the vaccine production. COVID vaccines are also a precious gift to humankind & without biotechnology, it wasn’t possible.

There must be someone around you who is suffering from diabetes. Before 1972 [first recombinant insulin was discovered], insulin used to be produced from the pancreas of the pig that was allergic to some insulin dependent diabetics. Now genetically engineered bacteria produce insulin without animals and that is saving millions of people’s lives today. Industrial biotechnology uses enzymes & microorganisms to make bio-based products in the sectors such as chemicals, food technology, detergents, paper, textiles, and biofuels. Cosmetics have become an important part of our life. Biotechnology is used to produce, discover, and develop components by cosmetic companies.

Food is one of the basic living needs and biotechnology plays a huge role in the food industry including agriculture, fermentation & preservation. Biotechnology has brought remarkable changes in the field of food development by better crops. But what is meant by “better”? Through the selection of traits like drought resistance, pest resistance, herbicide resistance, longer storage life & nutrient value, biotechnology is developing better crops. Transgenic crops are herbicide-tolerant e.g. soybean, corn, and cotton & BT crops are insect resistant e.g. cotton and corn. Have you heard about “Golden Rice”? It is also a biotechnology product that is rich in vitamin A. It is beneficial for the millions of people in countries that are suffering from vitamin A deficiency disease.

Do you know about fermented foods? Fermentation is one of the ancient techniques of biotechnology. Fermentation is an anaerobic process in which microorganisms like yeast and bacteria participate in the breakdown of the food components like glucose into organic acids, gases, or alcohol. Fermented foods have unique & desirable teste, texture quality, fragrance, and appearance. 

It increases the quality & nutritional value of that particular food. There are so many examples of  fermented foods like yogurt, cheese, bread dough, sour cream, Kimchi [fermented cabbage recipe], Pickle, beverages like wine, beer, cider, etc that we use in our everyday life. There are various products we obtained due to the process of  biotechnology which we utilize in our everyday life. Biotechnology has the biggest impact on our life. Have a look around you, you will realise that you are surrounded by many products that are gifts for us by biotechnology. We should say thanks and appreciate biotechnology for making our life easy.

Author – Nainakshi Singoria

College: Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Course: M.Sc. Microbiology Semester I

In today’s world, where we are suffering this pandemic of COVID -19, what we can think about is only the way from which we can get out of this situation! Opportunely, the solution of this is only through Biotechnology. Yes, you’ve heard it right as what we are talking about is the vaccine or some kind of medicine & we get it only with the help of biotechnologists and from the knowledge of biotechnology.

As the above scenario described the current situation, biotechnology is a high-in demand career especially nowadays. Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary field that combines mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, data sciences & others, it actually merges technology to invent a new product or rectify the existing services or products.

The candidate should be well-organized in manner and calm, composed by nature, must know laboratory work thoroughly, and at least have its basic knowledge. Independent working nature can also be considered as a should have characteristic. Must have the knowledge of operating computers. 

Job Prospects

One with Biotechnology degree can have options in various sector like 

  • Dairy industry 
  • Food processing Industry 
  • Chemical & textile industry 
  • Public funded laboratories 
  • Drug & Pharmaceutical research 
  • Environmental control 
  • Waste management 
  • Energy control & management 
  • Agriculture & Horticulture industries 
  • Healthcare sector 

Both private and government sectors offer job opportunities to a biotechnology degree holder at every level – graduation, post-graduation or at PhD. Department of Biotechnology (DBT) act as a back-support for biotechnologists as it funded various institutes to provide courses program of biotechnology & other related program with it, the main aim to prepare long term biotechnologists and scientists to make our research industry stronger and to introduce advance research methodologies & to make individuals prepared as a working professional.

Salary packages

The Government of India provides employment on a very large scale to most  biotechnologists in their research & commercial laboratories to support the students who take biotechnology as a career. Those who have employed in the government sector at any  post in laboratories or institutes have been provided salary packages with other perks/allowances.

Private sector, which broadly includes pharmaceutical companies, offers a very handsome salary package to freshers, one with a postgraduate degree can relatively earn more than one with a graduate degree. An experienced and skilled biotechnologist can get salaries far beyond his expectations. 

Institutes or companies hiring biotechnologists

Drug companies in biotechnology like Ranbaxy, Hindustan Lever and Dr. Reddy’s Labs, Dabur have their R & D units and offer trained biotechnology professionals with handsome salary packages.

Some industries also employ bio-technologists as marketing and sales executives which help them in developing their business with subject knowledge and expertise in marketing.

Some biotechnology giants that are hiring biotechnologists include Hindustan Lever, Thapar Group, Indo American Hybrid Seeds, Biocon India Ltd., IDPL and Hindustan Antibiotics. Economical and astute R&D partnering with Chinese and American corporate bodies has broad scope in mining young India’s biotech potential and also helpful in developing technologies parallelly.

India has a global market worth $91 billion & in near future it will be going to be more than this. This is the reason why so many biotech companies from various  specialties are flocking to India for their own R&D initiatives. Thus the R & D department holds  numerous opportunities with quite good salary which ensures one a stable future.

Author – Pooja Verma

College: Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Course: M.Sc. Microbiology Semester I

India is among the top 12 destinations for biotechnology worldwide. At the moment India biotechnology industry makes up just 3% of the overall global biotech market ($11.1 billion/81,680 crore) but this number is expected to go up to 19% by 2025 ($100 billion/₹7.5lakh crore) that’s almost one-fifth of the world’s biotech sector. The biotechnology industry in India comprises >2700 biotech startups and is estimated to reach 10,000 by 2024 which aims to provide high quality drugs, better diagnosis & MedTec products available at reasonable price.

Let’s take a look at India’s top 10 biotechnology startups that are making India & the world a healthier place.

XCode Life Sciences

Founded by Mohammed Saleem, Abdur Rab Abdur Rahman & Ramabadran narayanan in 2010. It focuses on preventive healthcare by enabling individuals to understand their genetic makeup and helping them to improve their lives by creating personalized health, nutrition and fitness plan based on their genetic markers and disease risk. A couple of years back XCode also launched the world’s first ever South Asian ancestry genetic test which enables south Asian people to trace their ancestry. So far XCode life science has raised $170 million (1.25 crore) from round glass partners and shade holdings.

MapMyGenome

Founded by Anu Acharya in 2013. It is a personal genomics startup that offers their customers DNA-based immunity report which offer insights about your risk towards certain immune system diseases as well as life style diseases they might be susceptible to. These reports also tell which drugs will be most effective for them based on their DNA. Make My Genome has raised $1 million (7 crore) from investors Singapore angel network & sequoia capitals MD Rajan Anandan.

Oncostem Diagnostics

Founded by Manjiri Bakre in 2011. Oncostem is a cancer treatment startup that offers innovative prognostic & preventive solutions. Its flagship product CanAssist Breast is a prognostic test for early stage breast cancer patients which provide vital insights about breast tumors as well as benefits & risks of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. It is working on developing tests for other type of cancer like oral & ovarian cancer. Oncostem diagnostic has raised $7 million (₹51.5 crore) from Artiman Ventures.

Sea6 Energy

The company was founded by 4 IIT Madras students Sailaja Nori, Nelson Vadasseri, Sayash Kumar, Sowmya Balendiran and their professor Shrikumar Suryanarayan in 2010. Sea6 Energy calls itself an ocean operating system because it has managed to harness the seaweed grown in oceans in a sustainable way to create a range of bioproducts that can boost agriculture, enhance animal & plant immunity and provide an alternative source of energy. It has raised $8.9 million (₹65.5 crore) from investors like Tata Capital & Biocon’s founder and CEO Kiran Mazumdar Shaw.

Pandorum Technologies

Founded by Arun Chandru and Dr. Tuhin Bhowmick in 2011, Pandorum Technologies is a biotech company that focuses on tissue engineering & regenerative medicine. It is the 1st Indian company to design & 3D print human liver tissue for medical research. Till date, the startup has raised $9.2 million (67.75 crore) from investors like 500 startups, 021 Capital, Indian Angel Network and Binny Bansal.

Bugworks Research

Founded by Anand Anandkumar in 2014, Bugworks Research is a drug discovery startup that is designing antibiotics that can fight the superbugs which are immune to our traditional drugs. To date, this biopharma startup has raised $16.5 million (121.5 crore) from University of Tokyo Edge Capital, Global Brain Corporation and Aquipharma Holdings.

Zumutor Biologics

Founded by Kavitha Iyer Rodrigues in 2013, Zumutor Biologics is one of the leading immune-oncology startups that help in treating cancer by targeting the body’s immune system. To date, it has raised $41.6 million (306.4 crore) from Accel, Chiratae Ventures & Bharat Innovation Fund.

Vyome Therapeutics

Founded by Shiladitya Sengupta & Venkateswarlu Nelabhotla in 2010, Vyome Therapeutics is focused on treating inflammatory diseases like acne using its innovative next-generation therapeutic solutions. It has raised $48.3 million (355.7 crore) from Iron Pillar, Sabre Partners and Aarin Capital.

Farcast Biosciences

Founded by Pradip K. Majumder & Mallikarjun Sundaram in 2010, Farcast Biosciences was formely known as Mitra Biotech. The startup has developed its flagship platform called CANScript which helps oncologists to identify which drug will be most effective for their patients. They have raised $76 million (₹560 crore) from Northpond Ventures, Tata Capital & Accel.

MedGenome

Founded by Sam Santhosh in 2013 , MedGenome is a biotech startup that offers genome–based diagnostics and research solutions. It uses DNA sequencing to help pharmaceutical companies develop personalised medicines for diseases like Cancer, Diabetes and other rare diseases. To date, MedGenome has raised $119 million (₹876.4 crore) from investors like LeapFrog Investments, Sequoia Capital and Zodius Capital.

These biotechnology startups are working at a speed of light to reach the sky heights by expanding their network. The advent of digitization & artificial intelligence has advanced the way science can deal with health issues. Let’s hope that in future more innovation, discoveries and development will be carried out in the biotech industry in order to advance the healthcare system worldwide.

Submitted By: Somya Mathur
Class: B.Sc. Biotechnology Part-2
College: Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

 

Biotechnology 

Biotechnology is a wide discipline that harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies that help in improving the health and lives of the people.”

Structure of DNA

In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick put forward their double-helix model of DNA, which is composed of two strands of nucleotides coiled around each other, linked together by hydrogen bonds and running in opposite directions. Each strand is composed of four complementary nucleotides – adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) – with an A on one strand always paired with T on the other, and C always paired with G.

DNA Sequencing

DNA sequencing is the mechanism to determine the sequence of nucleic acids that are the basic units of DNA molecules. DNA sequencing provides info about how nucleotide bases are arranged in a fragment of DNA. Each individual and organism has a specific nucleotide base sequence so everyone has a different DNA sequence. This sequence tells scientists the kind of genetic information that is carried in a particular DNA segment and helps in different aspects of the welfare of humankind.

Importance of DNA sequencing in biotechnology 

In Agricultural Biotechnology 

In the agriculture industries, the identification of GMO species can be possible with the help of DNA sequencing methods. Any minor variations or mutations in the plant genome can be detected with the help of DNA sequencing. This will help in the identification of different diseases in plants and helps to make pathogen-free plants.

In Animal Biotechnology 

  • Genomic sequencing of domestic animals helps in understanding the evolutionary relationships between species. Only because of sequencing researchers have found that two-thirds of human genes known to be involved in cancer have counterparts in the fruit fly.
  • Comparative genomics provides a powerful tool for studying evolutionary changes among organisms, as well as genes that give each organism its unique characteristics. By comparing the sequences of genomes of different organisms, researchers can understand what, at the molecular level, distinguishes different life forms from each other. 
  • Because of the sequencing of animal genome scientists are now able to make genetically modified animals or clones of domestic animals for getting desired products and for the welfare of mankind.

In Medical Biotechnology

  • The use of biotechnology in medicine is revolutionizing the diagnosis of diseases caused by genetic factors. It involves the use of sequencing to find more efficient ways of maintaining human health and it also helps in the study of DNA to identify the causes of genetic disorders and methods to cure them. New tests can detect changes in the DNA sequence of genes associated with the disease. 
  • Gene sequencing also helps in the development of gene therapy, a type of treatment designed to replace defective genes in certain genetic disorders. It has provided a means to design drugs that can target specific genes that cause disease.
  • It also opened up a path to more personalized medicine, enabling scientists to examine the extent to which a patient’s response to a drug is determined by their genetic profile. The genetic profile of a patient’s tumor, for example, can now be used to work out what is the most effective treatment for an individual.

In Forensic Biotechnology

  • Forensic science is the application of scientific knowledge and methodology to criminal investigations and legal problems. Biotechnology is used by forensic scientists to collect or process trace evidence such as hair, skin, blood, or semen samples, which are found at crime scenes. 
  • An important aspect of modern forensics is the use of DNA profiling, or genetic fingerprinting. Forensic DNA profiles consist of size measurements which are interpreted as the number of repeat units at short tandem repeat (STR) markers. These new tests will allow forensic scientists to sequence STR markers, potentially resulting in an increased ability to differentiate individuals in complex mixtures.

In Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

  • This field has great potential for future medical advances through the study of the human genome as well as the genomes of infectious organisms. Analysis of microbial genomes has contributed to the development of new antibiotics, diagnostic tools, vaccines, medical treatments, and environmental cleanup techniques.
  • DNA sequencing has an important role in pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics looks at how a person’s individual genome variations affect their response to a drug. Such data is being used to determine which drug gives the best outcome in particular patients.

In Microbial Biotechnology

Microbial genome analysis relies strictly on DNA sequencing technology. Knowledge of DNA polymorphisms improves the understanding of microbial genetic specificity. The microbial genome shows various sequence differences or polymorphisms. Microbial DNA polymorphisms are the basis for explaining the specificity of phenotypes, evolution, and taxonomy.

In COVID19 Pandemic

  • The highly contagious novel coronavirus, COVID-19, though originating in China, has now reached almost every country in the world. It has spread rapidly across countries endangering millions of lives. Almost every individual is directly or indirectly affected by this pandemic. 
  • With the help of the gene sequencing method, researchers identified the complete genome sequence of covid19. Coronaviruses possess the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, consisting of about 29,926-nucleotide, polyadenylated RNA, with a G+C content of 32%, the lowest among all known coronaviruses with the available genome sequence. 
  • As a result of their unique mechanism of viral replication, coronaviruses have a high frequency of recombination. Biotechnology has helped scientists to understand its origins and evolution and learn how and where it is spreading. 
  • The COVID-19 pandemic offers a unique opportunity to biotechnologists across the world to take this challenge head-on. The biotech industry, including pharmaceutical companies, research organizations are developing vaccines and targeted drug therapies to combat the novel virus. 
  • Next-generation sequencing methods can help enhance diagnostic testing accuracy as well. Because most of the testing developed for COVID-19 looks for one portion of the gene sequence that causes the virus if that one sequence mutates the test is no longer accurate.

Conclusion

Knowledge of the sequence of a DNA segment has many uses. The arrangement of nucleotides in DNA determined the sequence of amino acids in proteins, which in turn helped determine the function of a protein. It helps in basic biological research, in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis, biotechnology, forensic biology, virology, and biological systematics. Comparing healthy and mutated DNA sequences can diagnose different diseases including various cancers, characterize antibody repertoire, and can be used to guide patient treatment.

Biotech Industrial Training in Advance Genetic Engineering, Skill Development Training Program in Medical Biotechnology

 

Submitted By
Name –    Rupali Khandelwal 
Class  –    M.Sc. Microbiology Sem 1st
College –  Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Biotechnology provides a whole new world for research and various experiments. There is so much research going on.

Three of them are here

mRNA vaccine: a revolution to the vaccine industry

Developing vaccines is usually a very lengthy process as it takes approximately 8 years to get approval, which was normal for us but the global pandemic hit us so hard to think of alternative ways to produce vaccines in a shorter period. 

For that, so many experiments are going on but the main focus is on mRNA vaccines as they are non-infectious, non-integrating, cell-free, and offer both rapid scalable production with high productivity. This technique basically depends on mRNA encoding antigen genes of an infectious agent and inducing an innate immune response.


Here the key idea for covid 19 is that our immune system works against the particular foreign antigen but it takes some time to learn how to fight with that, so what if we train our immune system to fight against that particular antigen by having our own body to produce it, to do that researchers took the viruses blueprint, it’s RNA and isolated the part which is responsible to produce the spikes. 

With the help of this blueprint they produce mRNA, so this can help to produce the spikes, so mRNA vaccines contain the information for the production of spikes, not the virus so that the immune system can kick in and produce the B Cells and memory cells. 

There are so many benefits as we don’t get any fever after this vaccine and it is fast to develop as soon as we know the DNA or RNA of that particular virus. 

Lignin based nanoparticles

As lignin is the most abundant and natural renewable byproduct of the pulp and paper industry, it is present in a very complex and unordered form having so many excellent properties. Its remarkable absorption capacity and biodegradability and non – toxicity enable it to be an appropriate vehicle for various drug molecules and inorganic particles. 

Various other applications are also there like UV absorbents, antioxidant agents, antibacterial agents, etc. Every year about 50 million tons of lignin is generated from the pulp and paper industry and from this, a major part is discarded as waste or burnt to produce heat for electricity which causes various serious problems to the environment. 

Approximately 2% is isolated and used for various products. And why this is happening, the main reason is its complex structure and its poor miscibility with a host polymer matrix. To use lignin in a very efficient and eco-friendly way there is only one way as if the structure is changed from complex and unordered to a very simple and ordered manner. 

For this nanospheres of lignin are formed. There are many methods to prepare it like self-assembly method, solve exchange method, acid precipitation method, etc.

But some of the challenges which scientists are facing now is that the preparation methods use expensive and environmentally hazardous solvents including DMSO and THF, which are expected to be replaced with water and ethanol. Meanwhile, the production rate is very low. Hoping that we get a better yield and low cost. Eco-friendly products in the future.

Ethanol production as an alternative fuel

It is necessary for the production of alternative fuels to decrease the demand for foreign fuels. For this, our country’s doing so much effort and right now the main focus is on ethanol production by sugarcane molasses.

As ethanol shows a great ability to blend in, our country tries to blend the ethanol in petrol. By 2022, 10% of ethanol and 90 % of petrol and by 2030, 20% of ethanol and 80 % of petrol is going to be used. As this is a great initiative as we all know the ethanol is produced from sugarcane, bamboo, and rotten potatoes which are present in a great amount in our country. 

The use of ethanol in fuel blending has long been in use, and this helps in controlling gas emissions but cannot be compared to bio-ethanol in control of greenhouse gas emissions. Bio-ethanol is known to absorb the CO2 they emit; it also improves the rural economy. A lot of materials, especially starchy crops, are used in the production of bio-ethanol. 

This research work focuses on the production of bio-ethanol from molasses; a waste from sugar cane industries. Bio-ethanol is regarded as one of the most promising fuels from renewable sources. This study also looks at protecting the environment as the effluent of the bio-ethanol production can be treated before discharging to the open field.

Submitted By
Name –     Shivani Pareek
Class  –     M.Sc. Microbiology Sem 1st
College –  Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology

Biotechnology

Albert Einstein said “Imagination is more important than knowledge” but the fact is what common people can only imagine, biotechnologist with their productive knowledge can make it into reality, be it vaccine development for dreadful virus-like COVID-19 or interacting with life-controlling molecules like DNA, RNA, and proteins.

There is a dominant ideology that pursuing biotech can only open the door for the R&D sector. The truth is careers in biotech ranges from Drug development, biochemist, biophysicist, Medical Scientist, Food processing, biomanufacturing specialists, Environment control, Waste management, Toxicologist and even in beauty care products manufacturing and scientific writing too.

Biotechnology is absolutely linked with health, agricultural sectors, and many more. 

If a person is a Graduate in biotech then he/she can be employed as Biochemist, Biophysicist with minimum wage. Post Graduation opens up many job options like QA, QC, etc in the private sector. Below, explore average annual wages and job opportunities for many of today’s leading biotechnology careers.

1. Biomedical Engineer: $91,410 

2. Biochemist and Biophysicists: $94,490 

3. Biotechnology Research Scientist: $87,418 

4. Biomanufacturing Specialists: $83,017 

5. Medical Scientist: $88,790 

6. Microbiologist: $75,650 

7. Process Development Scientists: $94,739 

8. Product Management Director: $143,402 

  • Any student with a proper fellowship like CSIR/UGC NET, DBT, INSPIRE, etc can also get desirable jobs and salaries within a good private as well as government institute.
  • Besides teaching there is broad scope in R&D sector with a good salary package and an experience too.
  • A doctorate degree i.e. PhD adds further options along with well payment and also a post of Research Associate (RA)

Recently, during the pandemic companies like Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Astra Zeneca, etc are hiring knowledgeable freshers as well as professionals so as to be prepared for any upcoming pandemic with a good wage.

In terms of World statistics of hunger, food security is one of the biggest problems. The threat of regeneration of availability of food is now increasing day by day. And this is happening not only with small nations but also with developing nations like India. 

The persistence of food insecurity and malnutrition is an on-going issue affecting millions of lives. Even with the success of the green revolution, the world zero hunger motive is not fulfilled. Global hunger, a mortifying crisis is a condition in which people do not get sufficient food to eat. 

They are far away from winning the battle of food security for hundreds to millions of poor people. To combat this problem, Biotechnology provides a tool that enables farmers to grow high yielding crops that even have higher nutritional content, and which can hold out against biological and physical stresses. Biotechnology put forward new solutions to control and overcome these challenges.

Developments in various branches of biotechnology also play an important role in substantially increasing its efforts to find an alternative to synthetic feeding and new innovations in conventional plant breeding technologies. 

Moreover, state-of-the-art biotechnology offers an exciting new, and environmentally friendly way to meet customer demand for sustainable agricultural growth. These sectors of biotechnology play an important role in the fight against hunger in the world:-

Plant Biotechnology

Traditional plant breeding approaches have certain limitations. Since micronutrient malnutrition leads to serious health problems, one intervention is to produce basic food crops for higher levels of micronutrients, also called bio-fortification’. 

These biofortified cultures have been successfully disseminated in a variety of developing countries with proven nutritional and health benefits. In addition, transgenic approaches allow us to reach much higher micronutrient levels in crops than conventional methods alone, thereby increasing nutritional efficiency. 

Genetic engineering can also assist in combining micronutrient traits with agronomic traits that enhance productivity, such as drought tolerance and pest resistance, which are becoming increasingly relevant to climate change.

Nanotechnology 

Nanotechnology impacts many aspects of food science, from the way food, is grown to how it is packaged. Companies are developing nano-material that will make a difference not only in the taste of food but also in food security and the health benefits that food brings. 

The three most promising developments that deploy nanoparticles that enhance the potential of plants to absorb nutrients from the soil are 1. 

  1. Nanocapsules that release a regular supply of pesticides, 
  2. Nano-sensors which measure and adjust soil humidity levels. 
  3. Nanofertilizer which boosts crops with nutrients

In a survey earlier this year, they found that zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles increased the levels of antioxidant lycopene in tomatoes to 113 percent. Other researchers explore nanoparticles that protect plants from insects, fungi, and weeds. 

Genetic Engineering

Plants are genetically engineered to modify their DNA sequences to generate certain beneficial traits. Genetic engineering can enhance crop performance and increase the production of the target crop. Crops can even be designed to be more nutritious, providing essential vitamins to people who are struggling to obtain the specific nutrients needed for healthy living. 

GM crops like golden rice, pomato, corn, alfalfa, etc. are some examples of genetically modified crops with high nutritional value. 

Conclusion

The way to eradicate hunger in the world is more complex than any solution and is in fact much more complex than to tackle only the quantity or quality of food. The United Nations Global Sustainable Development Goals address hunger worldwide under Goal 2: Zero Hunger. Their aim is to eradicate hunger, secure food, improve nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture. This objective lays the foundation for the fight against global hunger through a multi-pronged approach. 

The editing of genes alters a living cell’s genetic material (DNA or RNA). In order to add, delete, or replace individual genetic bases and sequences, it utilizes a variety of different methods and techniques. In medicine, the gene editing process has facilitated the study of diseases in detail, helping clinicians and researchers to understand their root causes. 

The most significant aspect of gene editing is this emphasis on causes as well as on treatment. Although gene editing has been used mainly as a medical biotechnology, it also has exciting applications in many other areas, including agriculture and biofuels, where it can produce more disease-resistant strains of crops or algae. 

As it impacts the building blocks of life, gene editing is a controversial technology, sometimes raising public concerns. However, its growing usage cannot be overlooked and, if potential negative impacts are to be handled, knowledge of its applications is important. Enzymes, particularly nucleases that have been engineered to target a specific DNA sequence, are used to edit genes, where they introduce cuts into the DNA strands, allowing existing DNA to be extracted and replacement DNA added. 

To do this, scientists use various technologies. Such techniques behave like scissors, cutting the DNA at a particular location. Then the DNA where it was cut can be extracted, inserted, or substituted by scientists. In the late 1900s, the first technologies for genome editing were established. More recently, DNA editing has been made simpler than ever by a modern genome editing technique named CRISPR, invented in 2009.

Correcting Genetic Mistakes to Invention of Gene Therapy:

In the genetic discovery period of the mid-20th century, researchers discovered that the sequence of bases in DNA is transmitted from parent to offspring. Recognition of the latter led to the inescapable conjecture that the means to fix those errors would come with the discovery of “molecular errors” that cause genetic diseases and thus allow disease prevention or reversal. 

The underlying concept behind gene therapy was the notion which was used in molecular genetics as a holy grail from the 1980s. However, it has proven difficult to establish gene editing technology for gene therapy. Many early developments focused not on resolving genetic errors in the DNA, but rather on trying to minimize their effect by supplying a functional copy of the mutated gene, either incorporated into the genome or retained as an additional chromosomal unit (outside the genome).

Process:

Genome editing is a procedure where the genetic code of an organism is modified. Researchers use enzymes to ‘cut’ DNA to create a double-strand break (DSB). Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair occurs via DSB repair (HDR). NHEJ creates random gene knockout mutations, while HDR uses extra DNA to construct a desired sequence within the genome (gene knock-in). 

There are four Gene Editing Techniques: Tools to Change the Genome:

Sr.No. Techniques Principle
1 Restriction Enzymes: the native Gene editor  In the 1970s, with the discovery of restriction enzymes, the ability to edit genes became a reality. Restriction enzymes identify and cut unique nucleotide sequence patterns at that site, providing a chance to inject new DNA material at that location.
2 Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs): Increasing  identification ZFNs consist of two parts: an engineered nuclease (Fokl) fused to the DNA-binding domains of the zinc finger. A 3-base pair site on DNA is identified by the zinc-finger DNA-binding domain and can be merged to identify longer sequences.
3 TALENs Gene Editing:

Potentiality within single nucleotide

Transcription activator-like nucleases of effectors (TALENs) are similar to ZFNs structurally. Both methods use the Fokl nuclease to cut DNA and involve functioning dimerization, but the DNA binding domains vary. TALENs, tandem arrays of 33-35 amino acid repeats, use transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs).
4 CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing: The game changer CRISPR consists of a guide RNA and a Cas9 nuclease and is a two-component system. Within the ~20 nucleotide region identified by the guide RNA, the Cas9 nuclease cuts the DNA. Knocking out particular genes in cell lines to interrogate gene activity is one of CRISPR’s most commonly used applications.

 

Promoting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):

Gene editing has the ability for many of the SDGs to be advanced. Some examples of areas of application across a wide range of sectors are given below. 

SD Goals Applications
2. Zero hunger Develop the ability of crops to thrive in areas constrained by capital. 

Manage in a humane and ethical way the stock and productivity of livestock.

3. Good health and wellbeing Instead of treating symptoms, which is the current emphasis of most medical medicine, cure or stop diseases. Within the larger trend towards providing genomic medicine, studying the genetic make-up of a person will determine whether a patient will respond well to a drug treatment and allow targeted treatments that reduce unpleasant or harmful side effects.  
6. Clean Water and Sanitation Dissimal and removal by gene editing tools and systems biology of the persistent xenobiotic portion from water have emerged as the outstanding alternative. To overcome the difficulties in the field of bio-remediation of recalcitrant substances from the environment, several bioremediation approaches are present.
7. Affordable and clean energy Develop new sources of energy by allowing organisms to generate biofuels more effectively, such as bio ethanol. This would help minimize reliance on energy sources that are not renewable or detrimental to the environment, such as fossil fuels.
13. Climate action To enhance the use of photosynthesis, gene editing plants may become even more effective in trapping and sequestering carbon from the air.

 

Conclusion:

Advances in genome editing methods have opened new doors to what genome editing can do to solve medicine, agriculture, and beyond problems. CRISPR has fully revolutionized what genome editing, by growing the pace and scope of research, will mean for our future. In its role in drug development, diagnostics, and gene drives, we are already feeling the impact of CRISPR, just to name a few. At this pace, don’t be shocked if in the near future you see more discussion about genome editing. 

  1. Indian Institute of Technology Madras

IIT Madras has topped the list for the top Biotechnology colleges in India. The department of Biotechnology was established in the year 2004 offering interdisciplinary research in Biological Sciences, Biological Engineering, Computational Biology, and Chemical Biology. The institutes offer two dual degree programs namely B.tech/M.tech  in Biological Engineering. It is the best college one can opt for making a career in Biotechnology, recently It has got funding which has been used to put up a cutting-edge facility towards biotechnology research. This top tier institute also provides a Master of Science (MS) by research and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees.

  1. Dr. B. Lal Institute of Technology-

Dr. B. Lal Institute of Biotechnology is one of the fastest-growing and developing institutes in Jaipur. It’s a top-tier college for Biotechnology in the whole Rajasthan state. Affiliated to the University of Rajasthan, the academic programs it provides are M.Sc. Biotechnology, M.Sc. Microbiology, B.Sc. Biotechnology and Paramedical Sciences. Founded in 2015,  the college not just offers the best of theoretical knowledge but also conducts various industrial training programs that enhance practical knowledge in the students. Institutes has an excellent record of placements, many reputed and leading organizations collaborate with the institute for training and internship program. Interested students who want to make a career in Biotechnology can directly apply online from the website.

  1. Indian Institute of Science Bengaluru

Undoubtedly, India’s one of the most prominent institutes that promise advanced research and education in the field of Science and engineering. IISc was established in the year 1909 and with no time it has grown into a top-notch college in Bengaluru. The department of Biological Science is known for its research work, innovation, and providing the best of education to undergraduates and graduates. The departments it has under Biotechnology Sciences are Biochemistry, Molecular Reproduction, Centre for Ecological Sciences Molecular Biophysics, Development & Genetics, Microbiology & Cell Biology, and Centre for Neuroscience (BS).

  1. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

Among fifteen IITs, It is one of the prominent Institute which excels in training, research, and development in the field of science, engineering, and technology In India.  The Biotechnical department’s research work of this leading institute plays an important role in the evolution of the biochemical engineering discipline in the country. IIT Delhi offers a B.Tech(Bachelor Of Technology) in Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering. It also provides a Dual-degree Program of B.tech & M.tech in the same. You can also do an MS(Master Of Science) in Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering. Students can also enroll for Ph.D(in Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology) in this very prominent college in India.

  1. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

The BSBE, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering of IIT Bombay is working intending to provide top-quality education and engage its students in the research activities in the field of Biosciences and Bioengineering that can make an international impact. Institute prepares its students to be future leaders in the field of Biosciences and Bioengineering. The Faculty here are of best of all with great educational background and knowledge, currently, the department has 27 of members. At present, the department program is consists of the M.Sc. Biotechnology which is fully supported by the Dept. of Biotechnology, GOI), M.Tech Biomedical Engineering, integrated M.Sc. – Ph.D. and Ph.D. program.

  1. Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

The Department Of Biotechnology was set up in the year 1986, initially, it had offered B. Tech in Biotechnology & Biochemical Engineering, later it added many more programs. The department offers a curriculum that fulfills the intellectual requirement of UG and PG students. The students here are under the best of faculty and mentors under which they learn. The institute has got recognition in the research work of the following fields: Molecular biology, immune technology, Plant Biotechnology, Microbial technology, Bioprocess engineering, Biomaterial and Tissue engineering, structural Biology, and Bioinformatics, etc.